Python and Selenium Interview Questions and Answers
There are many fulfilling career possibilities in the IT sector. Making a name for yourself with Selenium and Python technology requires you to review the information you learned during your formative years. The day before your interview, decide what is more important in a broader sense, familiarize yourself with common terminology and the basics of Selenium with Python interview questions, and review the material.
Our selenium course syllabus covers everything required for attending technical interviews in big companies. Here is a carefully compiled set of Python Selenium interview questions and answers to assist you in acing the job interview.
What is selenium?
An open-source (free) automated testing framework called Selenium is used to validate web applications on many platforms and browsers. Programming languages that can be used to write Selenium test scripts include Python, Java, C#, and others. Testing carried out with the Selenium testing tool is referred to as “Selenium Testing.” CSS selectors in Selenium help you understand how to select and interact with web elements.
A group of tools called Selenium Software is designed to meet the unique needs of a particular company in terms of Selenium QA testing. The list of tools included with selenium is as follows:
- Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE).
- Selenium Remote Control (RC).
- Selenium WebDriver.
- Selenium Grid.
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Which components make up the Selenium suite?
Selenium is a collection of various testing instruments. Because each of these tools is made to meet a distinct testing need, it is frequently referred to as a Selenium Suite.
The various parts of the Selenium Suite are as follows:
The IDE for Selenium Integrated Development: This Firefox/Chrome plug-in records user actions on the web browser and exports them as a reusable script, which speeds up the process of creating automation scripts.
Selenium WebDriver: It is a programming interface that facilitates the creation and execution of test cases by interacting directly and automatically with web browsers through native compatibility. It doesn’t require a second server to build and execute test cases with RC.
Selenium Grid: By sending commands to multiple machines at once, it enables the parallel execution of tests on various operating systems and browsers.
Explore the various types of software testing and gain expertise with them to become an automation tester.
What is Python, and why do you think it works better for Selenium applications?
It is a scripting language, not a compiler, that functions as an interpreter.
Python is a computer language that is easy to use and not overly complex or huge. Python APIs allow us to use Selenium to establish a browser connection. It can communicate standard Python commands to different browsers, despite differences in browser design.
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What advantages does Python have when combined with Selenium?
Python is a programming language that features autonomous memory management, objects, modules, threads, and exceptions. Python has several advantages, like being open source, simple and straightforward to use, portable, extendable, and having built-in data structures.
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In what ways may software testing make use of Python?
- To produce reports, test API calls, create test data, and analyze test results.
- Using Python, get the requirements out of a Word document.
- Automating testing tasks, configuring test environments, obtaining performance information, and so forth.
- In many organizations, testers automate tests using Selenium and Python extensively.
- For creating desktop programs that testers utilize.
- Try manipulating the data.
- To construct a testing environment
- To test with IronPython on.NET
Explore the Python course syllabus that covers basic to advanced Python concepts.
XPath: What is it?
By establishing a syntax to set portions in an XML document, XPath (XML Path Language) is a language that lets you get data from XML documents, browse among their elements and attributes, and perform basic manipulations with strings, integers, and Booleans.
What differentiates the browser’s quit() and close() functions?
The current executing window will be closed with ‘Browser.close()’; however, you can still move to other window handles after shutting the active one. ‘Browser.quit()’ is a function that closes the entire browser, including any open windows. It ensures that processes are properly ended and terminated, preventing memory leaks.
Which testing types does Selenium support?
Selenium supports both functional and regression testing.
The process of rerunning all or a portion of previously completed test cases to ensure that all features are still operational is known as regression testing.
The necessary steps are:
Retesting: Each test is conducted using the current test suite. It turns out to be a very expensive and time-consuming process.
Regression test selection: Tests fall into three categories: end-to-end, feature, and integration tests. In this step, a number of the tests are selected.
Test case prioritization: The selected test cases are arranged in order of commercial importance and key components.
Verifying that every application function complies with the relevant specifications is known as functional testing.
The following are the procedures:
- Determine test input
- Determine test results
- Do the test
- Examine and contrast the test findings with the actual outcomes.
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What differentiates driver.quit() from driver.close(), in your opinion?
driver.close(): This command closes the browser window that is currently open. The window that is now in focus will shut if there are many windows open.
driver.quit(): All open browser windows are closed when the quit() method of the driver instance is called when one or more are open.
How is the same-origin policy applied and what is its definition?
For security purposes, a feature named Same Origin Policy was included. According to this principle, a web browser will allow scripts from one webpage to access the content of another webpage, as long as the two pages have the same origin. The origin consists of the hostname, port number, and URL scheme.
Because of the same origin policy, a malicious script on one page cannot access sensitive data on another.
Selenium RC was introduced to address this. The server acts as a client-configured HTTP proxy, “tricking” the browser into believing that Selenium Core and the web application being tested are coming from the same origin.
Which components make up the Selenium suite?
Selenium IDE: It’s a Firefox and Chrome plug-in designed to make writing automation scripts faster. It records what the user does on the browser and exports it to a script that can be used repeatedly.
Selenium WebDriver: Test case development and execution are facilitated via a programming interface known as WebDriver. It contains a section on managing web components. WebDriver doesn’t require a separate server and instead interacts with browser applications directly, unlike RC.
Selenium Grid: The grid was made to simultaneously send commands to other devices. It makes it possible to run tests simultaneously on a variety of browsers and operating systems. It connects with other components of the suite for concurrent execution and is incredibly flexible.
Discuss the various kinds of web locators.
Locator is a command that tells Selenium IDE which GUI elements (text boxes, buttons, checkboxes, etc.) it should interact with. The locators define the area of action.
Locator by ID: This method returns the object to the findElement() function; it takes as input a string containing the ID property’s value.
Locator by the link: The by.linkText locator can be used to locate the requested element if it is a link text.
Locator by Partial Link: A portion of the link text element can be used to locate the target link.
Locator by Name: This function returns the first element whose name attribute value matches the location.
Locator by TagName: Identifies each element with the given tag name.
Locator by classname: Elements are located by using the value of the CLASS property as a search criterion. This will compare to all of the classes that an element has.
Locator by XPath: This function takes a string parameter that is an XPATHEXPRESSION and returns an object to the findElement() method.
Locator by CSS Selector: This method uses the driver’s CSS selector engine to locate elements.
What differentiates Selenium 3.0 from Selenium 2.0?
The Selenium 2.0 tool facilitates the implementation of automated testing for web applications. It represents the coming together of the Selenium original project and the WebDriver project. Even though Selenium RC was no longer supported after the merger, it was still in use.
Selenium 3.0 is an improved version of Selenium 2.0. It has natural backward compatibility and is free of selenium RC. Better stability and several bug fixes are features of the latest version.
What types of waits does WebDriver support?
For a predefined amount of time, Selenium is instructed to hold off on throwing a “no such element” exception by using an implicit wait.
In certain situations, the Web Driver is instructed to wait before throwing an “ElementNotVisibleException” issue by using the explicit wait command.
The web driver can determine how long to wait for a condition to occur and how frequently to check for the condition before throwing an “ElementNotVisibleException” error by using the fluent wait function.
What restrictions apply to selenium testing?
- Lack of reliable tech assistance: Because Selenium is an open-source program, a qualified tech support team does not respond to user complaints.
- Only evaluates online programs Selenium needs to be integrated with third-party technologies like Appium and TestNG to test desktop and mobile applications.
- There is minimal support for image testing.
- It is necessary to combine Selenium with other tools, such as TestNG or JUnit, to add integrated reporting and test management capabilities, as these features are not native to Selenium.
- It is possible to need knowledge of programming languages: Selenium WebDriver assumes that the user has some programming experience.
Why is Selenium, a testing tool, so popular? Give justifications.
- Selenium is capable of testing web programs on several web browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Opera.
- Test code can be written in many programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python, and PHP.
- Due to its platform independence, Selenium can be utilized on a wide range of operating systems, such as Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.
- Selenium may be integrated with third-party tools like JUnit and TestNG for test management.
Selenese: What is it? In what way is it categorized?
To test your web application, use the Selenese commands for Selenium. The tester can test for broken links, specific UI items, Ajax functionality, notifications, windows, list options, and much more with Selenese.
Action: Orders that have direct communication with the program
Accessors: Enable users to set and modify specified values for variables they define.
Assertions: Check the current state of the application against a predicted state.
What are the benefits of automation testing and what does it entail?
You can automate the manual testing process of an application or system and generate comprehensive test reports by using testing tools that enable you to develop scripts that can be executed repeatedly. The following are some advantages of automated testing:
- It makes it easier to test the operation and performance of an application or system.
- It makes it possible to run the test cases concurrently.
- Reducing the amount of human engagement required to create test cases improves the system’s accuracy and efficiency.
- It facilitates large-scale test matrix testing.
- The testing team for the project benefits from time and cost savings.
Describe the various framework types and how selenium is connected to the robot framework.
The following are some of the different framework categories:
Data-Driven Testing Framework: This kind of framework stores test data as key-value pairs in an external database, which helps to isolate test data from the logic of the test script. Data can be added to the test scripts and accessed using these keys.
Hybrid Testing Framework: Using all of the advantages of the previously described frameworks, a hybrid testing framework incorporates them all.
Framework for testing library architecture: This kind of framework groups similar tasks into functions that are kept in a library and called when needed.
Framework for Module-Based Testing: In this kind of framework, every test application is divided into several logical and independent modules, each of which has its own test script.
Framework for Keyword-Driven Testing: The keyword-driven testing framework is an evolution of the data-driven testing framework. It also keeps the test data and test-script logic apart by storing a piece of the script’s code in an external data file.
Behavior-Driven Development Framework: Testers, developers, business analysts, and other professionals can readily comprehend and read the information generated through a behavior-driven development framework.
Robot Framework is a modular automation framework available under an open-source software license that can interface with external libraries and functionalities. To run a web testing library like Selenium, you need an automation wrapper or test automation runner like Robot Framework. TestNG, Nunit, Junit, MSTest, and other popular test runners can perform the same task.
In Selenium WebDriver, how are Ajax calls handled?
The important data may show up on the page when you click the submit button without requiring a browser refresh. The loading time may vary. It could be shorter or longer. We have no control over how long it takes for pages to load. Dynamic waits are the easiest way to deal with such scenarios in Selenium.
How should the StaleElementReferenceException be handled?
Before we look at how to handle one using the Page Object Model, let’s have a look at how to manage a StaleElementReferenceException.
The Stale Element Reference Exception needs to be defined initially. Something that has grown old, deteriorated, and lost its freshness is said to be stale. Anything unavailable or out of date is considered stale. Assume that WebDriver has located a WebElement on a webpage. The WebElement goes out of date when changes occur in the DOM. We encounter the StaleElementReferenceException when we try to work with a stale element.
What happens if you use both implicit and explicit wait in a Selenium script?
The Selenium documentation states that combining implicit and explicit waits is not recommended. The two together may result in different wait times. There is only one reference to implicit waiting throughout the code. For the duration of the driver object instance, it won’t change.
Explicit waits are used in the code when needed. When it is prepared to be executed, a call to action will be made. There is a waiting period that is conditional. Everywhere it is used, the explicit wait will take precedence over the implicit wait. For this reason, explicit wait wins out over implicit wait.
Why is using TestNG crucial when utilizing Selenium RC?
TestNG provides more reliable and adaptable test configuration and execution when compared to JUnit, the Selenium RC testing framework by default. Tests can be completed more quickly and more effectively with TestNG’s capacity to run tests concurrently, provide data-driven testing, and annotate test methods. Moreover, TestNG provides JUnit with more advanced logging and reporting features. Combining Selenium RC and TestNG can improve the efficacy and efficiency of automating web application testing.
Is it possible to test responsive web design with Selenium?
Indeed, Selenium may be used to test responsive web design. Automating browser interactions is feasible with Selenium, an automation tool for the web. Therefore, it may be used to test the responsiveness of a website by simulating interactions across different screen sizes and resolutions. Testing the page’s responsiveness to changing between landscape and portrait orientations, how the page elements display on different devices, and how the layout adjusts to different viewport widths are some of the things to do here.
One way to use Selenium to test responsive web design is to utilize the Selenium WebDriver API to alter the browser’s viewport size. After that, you can test the page’s functionality and layout. Another choice is to use a third-party library such as Selenium-Responsive-Testing to test the page’s functionality across a range of screen sizes and devices.
It is crucial to remember that Selenium is not enough for testing responsive web design; additional methods should be applied as well, including visual testing, manual testing, and the use of responsive design testing tools.
How to Get Ready for the Python Interview for Selenium
Interview Preparation for Selenium
Be confident and succinct: Throughout the interview, you should try to be as succinct as you can be with each of your responses.
As far as you know, tell the truth: During the interview, tell the truth about what you know and briefly discuss the highlights of your resume. If you don’t grasp a notion, be honest about it or explain why you haven’t worked on it before. However, you might expressly state that you would like to work on a concept that you have never worked on or are unfamiliar with.
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Give a few examples from actual life: When answering, make an effort to include some real-world examples. This gives the interviewer the impression that you are informed about the topic at hand.
Discuss your multi-talents: Add to Workday any other noteworthy prior knowledge and skills you may have. This encourages the interviewer to proceed with you because of your adaptability, which will make you stand out from the other candidates.
Analyze the company: Find out everything there is to know about the business. Respond in a way that best suits the needs of the company.
Look over the job specifications: Check the duties assigned to the position. Give at least one example from your past work that satisfies the requirements. When they bring up the requirements during the interview, you’ll be ready with an example.
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