Beginner’s Tutorial on Linux Operating System
It is the main application that controls all of the hardware and software on a computer.
Linux Tutorial is one of several distinct kinds of operating systems. In this Linux tutorial, we’ll begin with the fundamentals of Linux and go through all the key ideas that any Linux expert should be familiar with.
Let’s now explore the elements of this tutorial. Learn comprehensively in our Linux Training in Chennai with Hands-on Exposure.
What is Linux?
An open-source OS refers to a type of computer software where its copyright holder grants users all over the world, the right to distribute (to anyone for any purpose), change, and study the software.
A Linux distribution usually referred to as a Linux distro, is a variation of the free and open-source Linux operating system that comes packed with extra software such as the KVM hypervisor and administration tools.
Specifically for the commercial market, RHEL is developed.
What characteristics does Linux have?
Over time, Linux has developed a reputation as an extremely effective and quick system. You can assess how effective this operating system is by looking at its features. Let’s now examine the Linux OS’s main characteristics.
Versatile and Secure
Because of this, a lot of tasks are completed at night or are automatically scheduled for other quiet times, increasing availability for busier times and optimizing the use of hardware.
A multi-user system, Linux. This indicates that several users may use system resources simultaneously, including application programs, RAM, and memory.
Hierarchy File System
What are Linux’s benefits?
Furthermore, Linux distributions are freely distributable and may be lawfully downloaded, installed, and run on an unlimited number of machines.
Because Linux lacks the Active X software foundation, most viruses that infect operating systems employ it instead. The same idea also applies to other types of viruses, such as worms, Trojan horses, and spyware.
You can change certain features, remove those you don’t like, and add new ones.
Because the public has access to the source code and can alter it as necessary to tailor the program to their needs, you can perform these things.
Programming Language Support
How do you use Linux commands? What are they?
When a person instructs a computer to carry out a certain job, such instruction is known as a command.
We’ll introduce you to some fundamental yet crucial Linux CLI commands in this part.
With the help of these commands, you will be able to navigate your Linux terminal using the shell.
rm : Use the rm command to remove files from your Linux operating system.
locate : In the Linux operating system, locate is used to find files.
touch : Users may create files using the Linux CLI with touch.
rmdir : This Linux CLI tool enables users to delete already-running commands.
mkdir : The mkdir command lets users create new directories.
man : Used to display the manual for a command that has been entered.
mv : To relocate a file to another directory or folder, use the mv command.
cd : Users can switch between file directories with the cd command.
Is : Lists every significant directory organized under a certain file system.
What is Linux Shell?
An operating system’s shell is a specialized software that receives keyboard input and passes it along to the OS for processing.
Zsh, tcsh, and Ksh are additional shell applications that may be installed on a Linux system.
You may communicate with the shell by opening a window using an application called a terminal emulator.
Additionally, you should have a fundamental grasp of how the terminal functions and what Linux commands look like.
The standard user account, which is not administrative, should also be configured.
You may determine how your home directory fits into the overall structure of the file system with the Pwd program.
The ls command enables you to view the contents of folders. To change a directory by supplying an absolute path, use the cd command.
Everything will be good if the Linux process runs and exits flawlessly.
However, we may use a few Linux commands to aid in restoring the functionality of the process if it stubbornly refuses to end when its time is up or if it consumes too much CPU.
Find a specific process and view it to see what it is doing and whether any action is required.
The related priority level for that process must be specified or modified. You can simply end the process if it is acting improperly.
Several commands for managing Linux processes are shown below. By using the CLI, they may be inputted. Just launch a terminal window to access CLI.
top : Explains the procedures that are in place at the moment.
htop : Top-like, but more intelligent and attractive. The information is presented more understandably.
ps : For displaying a list of active processes.
pstree : Used to display a tree diagram of Linux processes as well as the connections among them.
who : The users who are presently logged into the Linux system will be listed.
kill : Used to end a process.
In Linux, all files and folders are organized into a tree-like structure. The uppermost directory is the file system root. All other directories may be accessed from this one, which is set up hierarchically.
Specifying routes, disks, partitions, directories, mounting and unmounting, file extensions, case sensitivity, file system permissions, and hidden files are among the major characteristics of a Linux file system.
A typical Linux installation gives users the option to partition a drive using the following file formats.
ext2, ext3, and ext4: These three file systems are ext’s successors (Extended Filesystem). ext was primarily created for MINIX.
While ext2 was an enhanced version, ext3 offered a performance boost. Performance was enhanced and a few new functions were added with the introduction of ext4.
JFS : IBM created the journaled file system (JFS) for their AIX operating system. JFS logs changes to files and directories in a log file.
ReiserFS : With more modern features and faster performance than ext3, ReiserFS is an alternative.
XFS : A fast Journaled File System designed for handling parallel I/O.
Btrfs (B-Tree File System): Emphasizes fault tolerance, fun administration, huge storage configuration, and repair systems.
manipulation of files
It’s critical to establish a directory structure while working with Linux OS so that we may manageably arrange our data and avoid spending a lot of time looking for certain files.
I’ll introduce you to a few commands in this part that help create and modify files.
mkdir is a program used to create directories.
rmdir : For deleting a directory, use rmdir.
touch : to start a new blank file.
cp : used to copy a file or a directory.
mv : used to move a file or directory.
rm : to remove a file.
Even though the Linux operating system has many security protections, when local access is permitted, there may be a possible vulnerability.
This indicates that if a user doesn’t provide directories and files with the proper permissions, file permission-based problems will arise.
As a result, it’s important to accurately give rights, and the methods are listed below.
Each directory and file have 3 user-based permission groups. The list of them is below.
Group permissions : These privileges only apply to the user group that has been given access to a certain directory or file. These permissions have no impact on the other users.
Owner permissions : The owner of the directory or file is the only person who may use these rights. These permissions have no impact on the behavior of other users.
All Users Permissions : Every user currently logged into the system is given access to these permissions.
Each directory and file have one of three different permission kinds. They are listed below.
Write permissions : These permissions describe a user’s capacity to add to or change a file or directory.
Read permissions : These permissions describe a user’s ability to read the contents of a file.
Execute permissions : These rights control a user’s ability to examine a directory’s contents or run a file.
In your GUI File Manager, you may see the permissions by looking at the directory or file permissions.
For those searching for work on this platform, Linux is a fantastic chance as one of the cutting-edge IT technologies. Its technical environment suggests that it will also have a lot to offer in the ensuing years.