Cloud Computing is becoming popular nowadays and there are about 3.6 million people actively using various cloud services as of 2021.
Cloud Computing Professionals are in-demand in global organizations to store and manage their business data. Amazon, Deloitte, Google, and IBM are the top recruiters who are hiring Cloud Computing professionals and they expect candidates with the right skills and certifications.
We offer the best Cloud Computing Certification Courses in Chennai at Softlogic. Here we meticulously gathered the frequently asked “Cloud Computing Interview Questions and Answers“ for the aspirants to clear the technical rounds of top companies successfully.
Cloud Computing Interview Questions for Freshers
- Define Cloud Computing
Cloud Computing is the availability of computer resources that can be accessed by users for their needs of services such as software, infrastructure, platform, and data through the internet.
Cloud services are offering an extensive network of global web services for users with pay-as-you-go options. It is adapted by many companies as it saves costs and data loss risks.
Individuals to large-size companies are accessing cloud services for their smartphones and other smart devices.
- List out the types of cloud computing
Cloud Computing is not only used for organizations and businesses but also useful for individuals. It allows users to run software programs without installing them on their computer machines.
Cloud computing enables users to store and retrieve multimedia content online. It provides tremendous benefits for users worldwide. The various types of Cloud Computing services are as follows.
- SaaS (Software-as-a-Service)
- IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-Service)
- PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service)
- Data Storage and File Sharing with Dropbox
- Big Data Analysis with Civis Analytics
- Data Governance through Carbonite
- Cybersecurity with Forcepoint
- List out the benefits of Cloud Computing
Cloud Computing offers numerous benefits for users and some of them are as follows
- Efficiency for business operations
- Accessibility of applications and data from any location with an internet connection
- Cost-saving through scalable computing resources with pay-as-you-go facilities as it saves the cost of expenses that are required for internal resources like Server and paid applications.
- Security with simplest standards that protect client’s data saved in the cloud platforms.
- Disaster recovery for small to large organizations to backup and restore their data and applications faster and more reliable manner.
- Flexibility and increased collaboration for various business projects without the need for unnecessary physical gathering.
- Define Cloud
- What are the layers in cloud architecture?
Cloud architecture contains four major layers namely the Physical layer, Infrastructure Layer, Platform Layer, and Software Layer.
- Physical Layer includes networks, physical servers, and so on.
- Infrastructure Layer contains network, storage resources, virtual servers, and so on. It is also defined as services like networks and servers for delivering to customers, access and scalable storage, on-demand resources, computing power, and so on.
- Platform Layer contains services or components like Google Application Engine, Windows Azure, AWS, and so on. It offers various services with tools and technologies for users to develop and deploy different types of applications.
- Software Layer is accessible to connect with end-users directly. It offers Dropbox, Gmail, and Salesforce that exists for customers to access through the internet. It contains two key features such as scalability and configurable.
- Define on-demand functionality and explain how it is connected to cloud computing
The on-demand functionality is the option that allows users to upgrade their local resources quickly for addressing their real-time demands. It offers resources instantly and they include speed, networks, servers, storage space, and software applications.
Services like mobile internet and podcasts are also offered by on-demand functionalities for the required customers.
All major service providers offer a control panel from the place the users can make changes and oversee the status of their server.
The user can enhance or scale up the resources whenever they need them. All the resources are stored in a single central system called a pool where users can immediately access and update their resources.
- Explain the security advantages of cloud computing
Cloud computing offers various security benefits to the users and some of them are as follows
- Higher availability: Cloud applications are available with various built-in redundancies and the users can monitor the security issues and fix them in real-time
- Data Security: Data is vital for all businesses and cloud-based security solutions can protect sensitive and confidential data from intruders efficiently.
- DDoS Protection: DDoS protection in cloud security solutions is used to track traffic volumes to avoid unwanted risks related to Distributed Denial of Services (DDoS). It is efficiently handling attackers from flooding our applications or site with overwhelming traffic that leads the site unresponsive.
- 24 x 7 Visibility: Businesses are required to monitor the applications and transactions 24 x 7 and they need continuous visibility for their applications to measure and predict the risks for making real-time business decisions.
- Threat Detection: Detecting cyber threats with end-point scanning is an important benefit of Cloud Computing and it helps in minimizing the risks of the assets of an organization.
- Regulatory Compliance: Cloud-oriented security solutions help organizations like public bodies or corporations for maintaining compliance by addressing regulatory needs and protecting their personal and business data effectively.
- Explain the system integrators in cloud computing
System integrations are emerging since 2006 and they are the practice of bringing components together of a system into a whole for making sure the system performs correctly and smoothly.
The company or an individual that specializes in system integration is known as a System Integrator.
- Why do we need large-scale cloud computing and list some of the platforms that provide large-scale cloud computing?
The on-time processing of massive digital collections requires the use of large-scale distributed computing resources and the flexibility to handle the customization process for performing the various business operations.
- What are the various types of models used in the deployment of cloud computing?
The choosing of a perfect Cloud Computing deployment model is essential for gaining a competitive edge in the market. the user can access IT resources and services that can make flexible and agile business operations by concerning volume and scale.
The various types of cloud deployment models are private cloud, public cloud, community cloud, and hybrid cloud.
- Define SaaS
Software as a Service is an abbreviation for SaaS and it is the software distribution model where the third-party provider hosts applications for making them available to their customers over the internet.
SaaS is the main and popular category in Cloud Computing along with IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) and PaaS (Platform as a Service). Google Apps, Dropbox, Hubspot, BigCommerce, and ZenDesk are examples of SaaS.
- Explain PaaS
Platforms as a Service is defined as PaaS and it is a cloud service model in that the third-party providers distribute hardware and software tools for their customers.
These tools are used for developing various applications and the resources of applications will be shared over the internet. The Platform providers host hardware and software with the flexibility to use services without installing and configuring the required hardware and software in the client’s machines to develop applications.
- Explain Private Cloud Storage
Private cloud storage is a secure, scalable, and expensive cloud storage type and is suitable for large-size organizations.
All the data stored on the enterprise’s internet will be protected by its own firewall. The user of private cloud storage will have complete control over the data.
Private clouds are used to keep important business operations secure. It is fully functional and is owned by an organization to restrict their data access within an industry.
- Define Public Cloud Storage
Public cloud storage is reliable, affordable, and scalable doesn’t need any maintenance and it is suitable for mid-sized companies and individual users.
- What is Hybrid Cloud Storage?
Hybrid Cloud Storage is secure, affordable, and scalable that offers an easy customization environment through third-party private and public service providers to meet the demand.
It allows users to move between public and private clouds according to the company needs and costs and hybrid cloud gives businesses flexibility for data deployment options. Hybrid cloud is the combination of public and private cloud facilities and it is preferred for a robust approach to implement cloud architecture.
It contains the features and functionalities of both cloud storage types and it allows organizations to create their cloud for their users.
- Explain resource replication in Cloud Computing
Resource replication is the creation of various instances from the same resources like infrastructure. When the user requires to improve the performance and availability of the resources, resource replications will be applied.
Virtualization operations will be performed to replicate IT resources with the use of a replication mechanism.
- List some of the popular platforms of cloud architecture
There are numerous platforms across the world that offer unique features in cloud architecture. Some of the popular cloud architecture platforms are as below
AWS: Amazon Web Services is a secure platform that offers content delivery, cybersecurity, mobile computing, software development, data science operations, database storage, and so on. AWS helps businesses to grow and scale easily with its cost-efficient features.
Microsoft Azure: It is the widely used platform that offers features to build, test, manage, and deploy services and applications. It has a wide range of cloud services to help businesses to address their challenges and needs in software development.
Google Cloud Platform: It offers infrastructure services and tools for global business operations. End-users can avail their services such as networking, IoT device development, big data, data transfer, storage, computing, database, and so on.
IBM Cloud: It provides Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS) for enterprises to access IT resources that include networking, storage, and computing power.
Alibaba Cloud: It offers cutting-edge technologies across database, storage, security, networking, computing, and many more.
Huawei Cloud: It gives secure, reliable, stable, and sustainable cloud services for enterprises to grow easily and effectively.
Oracle Cloud: It contains managed data centers to provide servers, applications, networks, services, and storage over the internet.
- Describe the usage of utility computing
Utility computing is also known as the computer utility which means a service provisioning model where a service provider makes the availability of computing resources and infrastructure management to the user needs according to the charges for a specific usage with a flat rate.
Utility computing is a plug-in maintained by an organization that decides the service type to be deployed from the cloud. It facilitates users to pay for what they have used.
- What is “EUCALYPTUS” in cloud computing?
EUCALYPTUS (Elastic Utility Computing Architecture for Linking Your Programs to Useful Systems) is an open-source software application that provides S3-compatible cloud storage and EC-2 compatible computing platform.
It facilitates scalable and efficient private and hybrid clouds within an IT infrastructure. It supports high-performed Cloud Computing that can be deployed on Linux OS distributions like RHEL/CentOS, OpenSUSE, Ubuntu, and Debian. The salient features of Eucalyptus are compatible with AWS (EBS, EC2, and S3), elastic IP management, web-based interface for the configuration, policies, and SLAs, and supports hypervisor technologies.
- List out the building blocks in cloud architecture?
The major building blocks of cloud architecture are reference architecture, technical architecture, and deployment operation architecture.
- What is CaaS?
CaaS refers to Communication as a Service that is used in the telecom industry. It offers enterprise user features such as desktop call control, desktop faxing, and unified messaging.
- What are the benefits of using cloud services?
The main benefits for companies in using cloud services are cost-saving as it helps in the utilization of investment in the corporate sector, scalable and robust by helping in the development of scalable and robust software applications, and time-saving that helps in saving time for deployment and maintenance.
- What are the important things to be considered before taking a cloud computing platform?
The essential things to be considered before implementing Cloud Computing platforms in companies are compliance, loss of data, data storage, business continuity, uptime, and data integrity.
- Define AMI
AMI stands for Amazon Machine Image which means a virtual machine to provide the required information to deploy instances.
Users can launch many instances with the same configuration parallel from a single AMI. It contains Amazon EBS, launch permission, snapshots, and device mapping.
AMI is the copy of a disk that is attached to the instance that contains multiple disk images. The main component is the read-only image that includes Windows, Linux, and UNIX operating systems and software applications to deliver a portion of a service.
Advanced Cloud Computing Interview Questions for Experienced Candidates
- What are the open-source cloud computing platform databases available today?
The available open-source Cloud Computing platform databases are MongoDB, CouchDB, and LucidDB. MongoDB is an open-source database platform based on a NoSQL document where it stores and records data in table rows.
The document of different categories is grouped to keep every data on a single document and it is written in C++ programming language. CouchDB is based on an Apache server database that allows the access of any data through Couch Replication Protocol and it speaks JSON that supports binary data for storage requirements.
LucidDB is written in C++ and Java programming languages and it is an open-source relational database management system used in business intelligence and data warehousing. It enables better performance with single Windows or Linux Server
- Differentiate elasticity and scalability in cloud computing
Elasticity is the ability to adapt automatically to match the resources of real-time. For instance, adding virtual machines closely. When there is a rapid rise in loads, the user can say it remains responsive.
Scalability in Cloud Computing is the ability to manage the requirements that change over time without affecting performance.
It will remain responsive when the load increases gradually over time. It helps in the long and stable growth of companies in a planned manner.
- What are the components required for cloud computing?
The various components needed for Cloud Computing are client infrastructure, applications, service, runtime cloud, infrastructure, management, security, and internet.
- Client Infrastructure is the part of the frontend that provides an excellent interface to the users to communicate with the cloud easily.
- Application is the platform where the users can access the cloud (Software or Application)
- Service with cloud service models that will be provided according to the user requirements. (SaaS, IaaS, and PaaS.
- Runtime Cloud is providing the runtime and execution environment to virtual machines
- Storage is one of the components that offer users the to store data in the cloud and manage it whenever they needed. It will be accessed by various clients parallelly.
- Infrastructure includes hardware components, software components, and other storage resources. Users can get services applications, host levels, and networks.
- Management manages the components like storage services, applications, runtime cloud, etc.
- Security offers a set of technologies, controls, policies, and applications. It is used to protect infrastructure, IPs, data, applications, and so on.
- Internet is the medium that offers communication between backend and frontend components. It offers a simple way to interact with each other.
- What is Edge computing and how do they showcase its connection with the cloud?
Edge computing is the distributed and modern IT architecture that processes client data and computation for the closest possible network source.
It will enhance response time to save bandwidth. It will replace the row data processing and transfer them to the main data center for analysis and it moves some parts of computing resources and storage out of the data center.
Edge computing is integrated with the cloud as it involves some processes that execute in the cloud and it moves some computing processes to the edge computing-based devices such as edge servers and IoT devices.
The combination of computing processes and edge computing leads the better performance outcomes. Enterprises that use both computing to benefit from cloud platforms and the performance of cloud data centers will not always support due to latency problems.
- What are the uses of APIs in cloud services?
The APIs are providing authorization and authentication to access cloud services like storage, monitoring, or compute infrastructure.
API has significant functions of the application or service that the user is required to execute while using them. Users can develop applications or integrate business tools to make the management work more manageable.
API offers an interface or gateway to an organization to communicate directly with cloud services as per their terms and conditions.
- Explain hypervisor in Cloud Computing
The hypervisor is the software application used in cloud deployment to allocate various resources after separating them into multiple pieces of hardware.
It is used as a key that allows virtualization. It is also known as the software firmware that is installed on single hardware to host virtual machines. It allows a single server to execute various virtual machines independently with various operating systems.
If one VM is getting crashed, it will not affect other VMs, operating systems, or applications using this hypervisor mechanism in Cloud Computing.
- What are public, static, and void classes?
Public class refers to the method that is visible from other objects and can be accessed from other types.
It allows any class to access the subject if the object is declared in a public class. A static class is referred to a class where a specific class object.
It is a static method that doesn’t allow the creation of any class instance. Void class means the method that doesn’t have any return value.
- What are the key components of Amazon Web Services?
The key components of AWS are,
Amazon Cluster: The computing services of AWS such as ELB and EC2 are used by organizations to increase or decrease as per their needs.
Storage: AWS provides simple storage devices such as S3, Elastic Block Storage (EBS), or CloudFront for storing various data possible as per the user needs.
Databases: Users can use EBS and EC2 to handle their databases. AWS has its own databases such as Amazon RedShift and Relational Database Service (RDS). Redshift is used to store data in columns that rows while RDS is used to expand and manage Oracle, MySQL, SQL Server, and PostgreSQL.
Management and Security: The AWS directory connects the cloud directly with local locations and it has a CloudWatch feature to control the resources efficiently.
Networks: It offers better network performance which means it provides private cloud and integrated security.
Analytics: It provides analysis services in areas such as orchestration, real-time storage, Hadoop, and data transmission.
Application Services: Amazon SQS (Simple Queue Service) for storing information such as messages to automate the workflow
Mobile Services: AWS provides two mobile services that are Mobile Analytics and Amazon Cognito.
- What is the best way to make the data transfer to the cloud in a safe environment?
Secure key generation is the best way that sure there will not be any data leaks whether they’re malicious or not or from the cloud storage. It makes intercepting your data impossible when it moves into the cloud environment safe and secure.
- Is there any security risk in cloud computing?
Yes, there are chances of security issues in Cloud Computing even it has advantageous features such as improved scalability, mobility, excellent accessibility, and storage.
The expected security issues are data loss, hacked interfaces and insecure APIs, data breach possibilities, business lock-in, denial of service attacks, increased complexity for IT workers, Specter and Meltdown, and account hijacking.
- Explain the computing key enabling technologies?
The popular Cloud Computing key enabling technologies are Distributed computing, Internet technologies, Hardware technologies, and System management.
Distributed Computing is used to visualize the idea of integrating multiple computers via computer networks by using a distributed system. Cluster, Grid Computing, cloud, and web 2.0 are the various parts of distributed computing.
Service-Oriented Architecture and Web 3.0 are Internet technologies that can be defined as the core development of Cloud Computing systems. It takes the main building block of system development and application.
Hardware technologies are virtualizations and multicore chips that ensure a smooth centralized system for providing various functionalities to the customers.
System Management is offering automatics computing and a web server is a software application available for the internet to use a standard messaging system. XML is used here to encode all communications to a web service.
- What are the advantages of PaaS in cloud computing?
The advantages of PaaS (Platform as a Service) are simple development as it allows developers to focus on development and innovation rather than worrying about infrastructure management, Lower risk as it doesn’t need of investment in hardware equipment’s software, prebuilt business functionality doesn’t develop everything from scratch and directly start projects, an instant community that shares ideas and insights among developers, and scalability as the applications deployed can be scaled up with all users.
- List out some of the disadvantages of PaaS in Cloud Computing
PaaS in Cloud Computing has some limitations such as Vendor lock-in, data privacy, and synchronization issue on system applications. The vendor lock-in issue falls during the migration of data from one cloud provider to another. Data privacy lies when the corporate data is shared in a public environment. Synchronization problem arises when there is an increased complexity during the integration or mixing of local and cloud data.
- What are the advantages of IaaS of Cloud Computing?
The advantages of IaaS in Cloud Computing are shared infrastructure, shared users to share physical infrastructure, web access to the resources, IT resources available over the internet, on-demand as per usage model, pay-as-you-go features, business model focus, updated versions of software applications, core organizational focus, and scalability.
- List some of the limitations of IaaS in Cloud Computing
The disadvantages of IaaS in Cloud Computing are security, maintenance, up-gradation, interoperability issues, migrating virtual machines, and customer experience problems.
- What are the limitations of SaaS?
SaaS has some disadvantages such as security, latency issue, total dependency on the internet, and migrating from one SaaS vendor to another is risky and difficult.
- What are the risks that can be expected in Cloud Computing?
There are some limitations in Cloud Computing such as vulnerability to attacks, network property dependencies, downtime, vendor lock-in, and limited management.
- Explain the various Datacenters deployed in Cloud Computing
Cloud Computing is the formulation of data centers that are put up in a grid form and it includes various data centers such as containerized datacenters and low-density data centers. Containerized data centers are the traditional one that allows a high level of customization with servers and mainframe resources. It needs planning, networking, cooling, and powering to access and work. Low-density datacenters are optimized to give high performance. It has the limitation of high density and it is suitable only for the cloud infrastructure.
- What are the types of SaaS?
Software as a Service offers a cloud application platform for users to create an application with the tools to provide. It will be defined as simple multi-tenancy and fine grain multi-tenancy. Simple multi-tenancy has its own resources that are different from other users. Fine-grain multi-tenancy remains the same that the resources can be shared with many.
- Explain the security aspects provided by Cloud Computing
Security aspects of Cloud Computing are identity management that authorizes the application service or hardware component used by authorized users, access control to provide permissions for users to enter into the cloud environment, and authorization and authentication offered by cloud services providers to people for accessing and changing applications and data.
- List out some security laws that take care of data in the cloud
The security laws that protect data in the cloud are input validation, processing, file and data that to be manipulated, output reconciliation to control data from input to output, and backup and recovery to manage security breaches logs efficiently.
- What is VPN?
VPN is the abbreviation for Virtual Private Network that is managed by organizations to manage the data with security to ensure the transactions in the cloud environment are safe. It enables an organization to make a public network a private network for transferring files and resources safely over the network.
- What are the things in VPN?
VPN contains two important things a Firewall that filters messages that are exchanged between the networks to protect from any malicious activities happening on the internet and Encryption that is used to protect sensitive data from professional hackers and spammers that remain active to get the data.
- Why virtualization platform requires the implementation to the cloud?
A virtualization platform helps in decoupling hardware from software, managing service level policies and cloud operating system, and deploying Cloud Computing models like SaaS, IaaS, and PaaS.
- List out the phases of cloud architecture?
The various phases of cloud architecture are Launch Phase, Monitor Phase, Shutdown Phase, and Cleanup Phase.
- List out the data types that are used in cloud computing
In Cloud Computing, we can use various data types such as email, text, decimal, number, locale, images, date, Boolean, contact, etc. New data types are also added up to store the user’s data as the data is increasing day by day. If anyone wants to store a video, it requires a new data type.
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