IoT Interview Questions and Answers
Here are the frequently asked interview questions and answers for acing the IoT technical rounds easily.
- What are the characteristics of IoT?
Active engagements in IoT will be utilized through cloud computing technologies, Scalability is covering the zones for IoT device processing, and Artificial Intelligence enhances the usability of smart devices with IoT technology.
- List the main components of IoT.
Sensors will collect live data from the environment, Connecting the Sensors or Devices using various communication mediums such as mobile, Bluetooth, WAN, Wi-Fi, or Satellite Networks is another component, Data Processing enhances the IoT device operations such as temperature adjustment or faces recognition, and User Interface is the one that enables the IoT devices to interact with the users through alerts, notifications, or mails.
- Explain the advantages of IoT
An IoT System is the advanced analytics and automation process using networking, big data, Artificial Intelligence, and sensors to offer a complete solution and it provides various benefits such as Improved Customer Engagement, Technical Optimization, Ease of Access, New Business Possibilities, Effective Time Management, and Enhanced Security Measures.
- What are the risks of IoT?
IoT systems are associated with some challenges for the users like privacy, insufficient testing, outdated processes, lack of knowledge and awareness, network connectivity, and reliability.
There will be possible of hacking as the connected IoT devices are vulnerable.
There will be no timely updates and not enough testing of IoT devices in the market.
There is a lack of knowledge to provide security to users and there are always network connectivity and bandwidth problems in remote locations.
It will be difficult to ensure the reliability of IoT systems.
- What are the various types of Sensors?
Sensors of IoT have obtained the importance for improved productivity, lowering costs, and enhanced work safety.
IoT devices or sensors are used to detect changes in the environment condition and perform accordingly.
It helps in detecting particular conditions such as heat, sound, distance, light, pressure, or gas absence of the physical world to generate a signal as a measure of the magnitude.
They are generally used in IoT systems and the types of sensors are temperature sensors, pressure sensors, gas sensors, motion detection sensors, IR sensors, proximity sensors, and smoke sensors.
- What are the layers of IoT Protocol Stack?
In IoT, Protocols are protecting data to ensure the secure exchange of data between devices through the internet.
It defines how the data is transferred across the internet and it involves five major layers such as application layer, transport layer, network layer, data link layer, and physical layer.
- What are the classifications of the application layer?
- What are the classifications of the Transport layer?
Transport Layer is classified into User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
- What are the classifications of Network Layer and Datalink Layer?
Network Layer is classified into 6LoWPAN and IP (Internet Protocol) and Datalink Layer is classified into LPWAN and IEEE 802.15.4 MAC.
- What are the classifications of the Physical Layer?
The physical layer is classified into IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, Near Field Communication (NFC), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and Ethernet.
- What are the various communication models of IoT?
- What are the real-time use cases of IoT?
IoT is used in Smart Homes, Connect Health, Wearable Devices, Connected Cars, Hospitality, and Farming.
In Wearables, IoT systems are implemented to deploy functionalities such as heart rate monitors and smartwatches.
In Connected Cars, an IoT system is used to optimize the operations and maintenance of passenger’s comfort (Tesla, BMW, and Google are using IoT technology in their cars), In Hospitality, IoT is applied to higher service of quality to be achieved through integrations of various applications.
In Farming, IoT tools are implemented to deal with drip irrigation, crop pattern understanding, water distribution, and surveillance drones.
- Define BLE.
Where Classic Bluetooth Connectivity offers wireless devices that stream rich content like data, audio, and video through pairing the two devices.
While BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) is the smart sensor device that sends small bites of data using very little energy and the pairing of devices is not required.
BLE is used to facilitate the IoT and it allows the devices to communicate and share data with high energy efficiency.
- What is a thermocouple sensor?
A thermocouple sensor is used to measure temperature by coupling two metal pieces together.
It will be measured at a junction between the two pieces of metal that are joined at one end.
A thermocouple is a robust, simple, and cost-effective temperature sensor used in various types and sizes and it measures range for various applications like industrial settings, scientific research, home appliances, etc.
- Give a short note on how IoT works.
The sensors or devices are connected to a cloud component through particular connectivity forms IoT.
The Raspberry Pi is used to equip with the quadcore processor as an “internet gateway” for IoT devices and it uses a card-sized computer with GIPO (General Purpose Input/Output) pins for controlling outputs and collecting real-world data to sensors.
Once the sensor receives live data from the surrounding, it will send to cloud infrastructure and then the software application will process them to decide what action can be taken like sending an alert or adjusting automatically without human intervention.
Finally, the cutting-edge user interface is used to check the system for adjustments and make changes.
A highly effective and intuitive device will be created that increases automation at the end of the IoT process.
- What is a “smart city” project?
Smart cities are developed using IoT technology since their inception and they will grow into more countries that adopt next-gen connectivity and impacts the regular lives of common people.
IoT technology contains connected sensors, meters, and lights in smart cities that gather and analyze data for improved infrastructure, utilities, and other services.
Clever energy grids, automated waste management systems, smart homes, traffic management mechanisms, advanced security systems, the smart living are powered with IoT and it has a new layer of artificial intelligence and innovation to people for urban development.
- Define PWM.
It will change the amount of power that is delivered to the device by generating an analog signal from a digital source in an effective way and this helps the people to load the device without wasting any energy.
It also helps in regulating voltage and controlling brightness in Smart Lighting Systems.
- What is IoT Contiki?
Contiki is an operating system developed for IoT devices with limited power, memory, bandwidth, and processing power.
It has many features to modern operating systems for managing programs, resources, memory, processes, and communications.
It is lightweight as per modern standard, mature, and flexible in nature and it is being used in research, academics, and professionals.
- What is Shodan?
Shodan (Sentient Hyper-Optimized Data Access Network) is a search engine like Google and it does not use for searching websites but for mapping the information about internet-connected devices.
It refers to an IoT search engine for identifying the internet-connected devices to keep track of all the machines with direct internet access.
Cybersecurity experts will use the Shodan tool for protecting companies, individuals, and utilities against cyberattacks. It allows for internet-connected devices to be applicable for public use.
- What are databases will be suitable for IoT technology?
- What is mean by Sharding?
Sharding is the process that splits very large databases into smaller, easier, and faster units to manage pieces.
It is a small portion of a large data set with the principle of splitting the logical dataset into multiple databases to store the data more efficiently.
If the dataset can’t be stored in a single database, then developers are using the Sharding process.
- Define Replication.
Data will be synchronized between two or more servers in the Replication concept. Replication is the method that stores the same data on two or more sites or servers.
Replication is the feature that allows the data to be accessed seamlessly during server downtimes or heavy traffic.
The user can obtain access consistently to data without interfering with other users.
In other words, replication is just a backup that originates data to the subscriber from the publisher and it involves synchronization of the transaction automatically.
- What is an IoT gateway?
It is a central hub that connects devices for IoT and it connects the devices to the cloud, converting communication, and data analyzing to create meaningful information.
Most of the critical functions are performed by an IoT gateway and it includes translating protocol, encrypting, managing, processing, and filtering data.
- Define WoT.
- Define IoT device management and explain why do we require it.
IoT devices are to be updated or fixed time after the installation. It should be replaced or repaired occasionally for better downtime results.
The IoT device management is used to solve any problem for good shape and it involves provisioning, authentication, monitoring, configuring, and maintaining the connected devices and software applications.
IoT devices such as provisioning and authentication for modifying the device from its off-the-shelf settings to the needy for its work on the network and safeguard the proprietary information, Configuration and Control to configure the new devices and control them after deployment to ensure performance, security, and functionality,
Monitoring and Diagnostics for resolving software bugs, and Updates and Maintenance for a device to work flawlessly even after it is being added with new features.
IoT is providing numerous benefits to organizations, individuals, and the public through various ranges of applications with the key goal of extended and efficient usage of internet access.