Full Stack Developer Interview Questions And Answers

Full Stack Developer Interview Questions and Answers

  1. Explain what is Full Stack Development.

Full Stack Development is when your organization comprises a software development team that knows everything from front end to back end.

They will also look into DevOps practices and databases as and when the need arises.

The full-stack developers are well-versed and look from every angle. In “Full Stack Development“, the developer ensures that both the client side and server side requirements are taken care of.

These versatile developers can handle projects that need database, APIs etc.

  1. What are the responsibilities of a full-stack developer?

Full-stack developers should be proficient enough to have a say whenever their help is needed in a process. Some of the responsibilities of a full-stack developer are:

  • Taking full responsibility of the software development process from beginning to execution
  • Testing software to maintain it in the best condition
  • Coding effectively for the front end and back end of the software
  • Taking care of the application’s responsiveness
  • Satisfying both technical and end user requirements
  • Keeping abreast of new technologies and communicating them to the relevant team
  • Designing and building APIs
  • Be updated with the job expertise by learning new development tools
  • Make sure that there is cross-platform optimization for mobile
  • Paying attention to scalability
  1. What is front-end web development?

Front-end web development is also called as client-side web development. This involves what the users view from their end.

While the backend developers develop code, the front-end developers produce it into a graphical interface.

The key is that the data should be in a readable manner. The front-end developer makes sure that the website visitors can interact with the page conveniently.

  1. What is backend web development?

What takes place behind the scenes of the web development process is called back end.

Backend developers majorly concentrate on how the website functions. They develop code that pays attention to the working and reasoning that is the driving force of the application.

Backend development can include database migration and API integrations.

  1. What development languages are nowadays used for the purpose of server-side coding?

There are several languages involved in server-side coding. Examples of them are Python, PHP, JavaScript, C# etc.

  1. What is MVC? Should a full-stack developer know MVC?

MVC is the short form of model-view-controller. The model is the layer that maintains the data for the application.

View, as the name implies, is the layer that shows the application. Controller is the brain power of the application that deals with the logic.

A Full-Stack Developer should have good knowledge of MVCs.

  1. What is pair programming?

As self-explanatory, pair programming is when two developers operate a single machine.

While one programmers does the coding part, the other one will watch it keenly and give feedback if any.

These roles can shift on a frequent basis. While the coding person is called the driver, the observing person is called the navigator.

  1. How to improve a website’s efficiency?
  • Choose the appropriate hosting option; don’t focus only on the cheapest but on the trustworthy
  • Make use of a Content Delivery Network
  • Optimize your website’s images’ size
  • Use minimal plugins
  • Make use of website caching
  • Decrease redirects
  • Deploy an efficient WordPress theme
  • Eliminate unwanted and unused WordPress plugins
  • Set right broken URLs
  1. What is RESTful API?

RESTful API, also termed as REST API, is an API (Application Programming Interface) that adheres to the limitations of REST architectural style and paves the way for communication with RESTful web services. REST refers to Representational State Transfer.

  1. How to decrease the load time of a website?

On a frequent basis, you need to govern how your website is loading and make out the reason for slow loading. The ways to reduce the website’s loading time are:

  • Select a hosting solution that focuses on performance
  • Reduce your images’ file sizes and optimize them
  • Decrease your redirects
  • Do web page caching
  • Use browser caching
  • Decrease HTTP requests
  1. Which are the commonly used software architectural patterns?
  • Client-server pattern
  • Layered pattern
  • Pipe-filter pattern
  • Master-slave pattern
  • Peer-to-peer pattern
  • Model-view-controller pattern
  • Microservices architecture
  • Broker pattern
  • Event bus pattern
  • Interpreter
  1. What is long polling?

Long polling enhances the original polling to a great extent. It helps in having continuing connections with the server.

You can poll the server efficiently with long polling. One can also deliver messages in a prompt manner.

  1. What are the methods of session management in Servlet?

Session management is applied by the web container to store session details for a specific user. The different methods of session management in Servlet are:

  • Cookies
  • URL Rewriting
  • Hidden from field
  • Http Session
  1. Explain callback in JavaScript.

You can pass a function in the form of an argument to a function in JavaScript.

This specific function that is passed as an argument within another function is termed as a callback function.

Callbacks are an excellent method of dealing with asynchronous behavior in JavaScript.

  1. What is callback hell?

Callback hell is found in asynchronous programming. There will be nesting of functions in callback hell, and for huge applications it leads to more nesting.

Promise is a way to avoid callback hell. Promises are used in place of callbacks for producing the outcomes of asynchronous computation.

  1. How to avoid deadlock in Java?
  • A deadlock in Java is a scenario where a couple of threads are blocked always. You can avoid deadlock in Java by doing the following:
  • Avoid providing a lock to multiple threads given that you have already providing to one thread.
  • Don’t implement foreign code at the time of holding a lock
  • You can use Thread.join when one thread is in the process of waiting for other to complete.
  1. What is a critical section?

A critical section is where the program accesses shared resources. Critical section comprises shared variables, and these resources take part in synchronization.

  1. Explain the difference between resetting and normalizing CSS.

Resetting involves eliminating all styling from every element. Normalizing involves providing a way to elements to contribute consistently across browsers.

  1. Do you wish for a technical coding role or a managerial position?

This question will help the recruiter exactly know how far you have understood full-stack development.

A full-stack developer need to look from different angles and also help the decision-makers through his/her inputs.

  1. How do you handle multiple projects simultaneously?

This question will help you to present your ability to handle multiple projects and how far you can handle stress with efficiency.

  1. Which programming language you like best and why?

You can tell which is your favorite programming language and the apt reasons for your liking towards it.

You should answer in such a way that the interviewer is convinced with your answer.

For example, if Java is your favorite programming language, you can say that you like the object-oriented nature and platform independence of Java.

  1. What is the difference between a full-stack developer and a software engineer?

A Full Stack Developer deals with both the front end and back end of a website.

They also handle databases, APIs and servers as and when needed. A software engineer is a technology expert who has immense proficiency in programming languages and software development principles.

  1. What programming languages should a full-stack developer know?

Full Stack Developers should be well-versed in HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and a couple of backend languages like NodeJS, Express.js etc.

  1. Explain what ACID refers to in database system.

In the context of database system, ACID means Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability.

ACID generally deals with how a database recovers from an instance of failure that might take place while processing a transaction.

  1. Explain referential transparency.

Referential transparency implies that an expression including a function call can be replaced with its value.

  1. What are data attributes?

A data attribute lets us to store additional information on standard, semantic HTML elements.

  1. Tell the difference between horizontal scaling and vertical scaling in the database.

While horizontal scaling is generally dependent on the partitioning of data, in vertical scaling the data resides on a single node.

Vertical scaling maintains your existing infrastructure but includes computing power.

Horizontal scaling includes more instances of machines without initially implementing enhancements to existing specifications.

  1. What is a promise?

An object that can be returned in a synchronous manner from an asynchronous function is called a promise. Three states are available for the promise object: pending, resolved, and rejected

  1. Are you working on any coding at present?

This question tests your knowledge of the language that you are coding and helps the interviewer know your strengths in the specific languages.

  1. What is CORS?

Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) is a technique that lets restricted resources on a web page to be requested from a different domain outside the domain from which the initial resource was served.

  1. Do you know about design patterns?

This question will test your expertise in knowing design patterns. In your role of a Full Stack Developer, you should not only be proficient in writing code but you should also mitigate complexity. The key is in writing manageable code. Learning design patterns accelerates the development process and decreases the typical issues faced by developers.

  1. What is inversion of control?

Being a design principle, inversion of control (IoC), as the name implies, inverts the flow of control in relation to conventional control flow.

The classes under this principle are loosely coupled. This leads to their hassle-free testing.

  1. Explain the difference between thread and process.

Threads and processes are standalone sequences of execution. While the thread loads in a shared memory space, a process loads in separate memory space.

While a process uses more resources, a thread uses only few resources. For process, the time taken for building is more, whereas in thread the time is less.

A process may consist of varied threads apart from the primary thread.

  1. What is continuous integration and continuous delivery?

Continuous integration (CI) and continuous delivery (CD) are two concepts that are used in DevOps. These two are essential DevOps best practices.

The release process is automated in case of continuous delivery. Under continuous integration, version control system is deployed.

One can release as frequently they wish with continuous delivery.

You can make optimal use of the production as early as possible to ensure that you release small batches so that you can fix easily whenever problem arises.

  1. What is multi-threading?

As the name implies, when multiple threads are formed within a process, it is called multithreading.

Two or more instruction threads are implemented in an independent manner. However, they share the same process resources.

  1. Explain the difference between REST and GraphQL.

REST has been a renowned method for designing APIs. But with the advent of GraphQL, it is facing a major challenge.

Though both REFST and GraphQL satisfy the same function which is data passing through internet protocols, they differ in that while GraphQL is a query language, REST is essentially an architectural pattern.

  1. Explain the advantages of using unit tests.

In unit testing, the individual elements of software are tested. It brings along with it the advantage of discovering the bugs easily and rapidly.

Besides, unit testing is cost-effective and saves your time too. There is a specific responsibility for every individual component in unit testing.

This leads to the reliability of the code.

  1. What is the important quality needed for a full-stack developer?

A Full Stack Developer should have the willpower to continue, curious mindset, enthusiasm towards problem-solving and should find opportunities in every challenges.

  1. How do you keep abreast with the recent technology?

This question helps the interviewer know the interest of the candidate in learning new things.

You can explain the ways in which you keep updated with recent technologies.

  1. Explain a situation where you committed a mistake in your work and how you solved it.

This question helps the interviewer to understand how you take ownership of your mistake.

You can explain such a situation and let the interviewer know how you fixed it.

  1. Give some examples of web applications that you have developed.

This question helps the interviewer assess your knowledge of the web applications and hence know your expertise.

  1. What guidelines would you consider for SEO?

Some of the best guidelines for SEO are using HTTPs, ensuring the web page loads fast, develop compelling meta descriptions, align search intent with the content etc.

  1. How to optimize the website?

Some of the best ways to optimize the website are making it mobile-first, using precise elaborate titles for your pages, maintain your site up to date, perform exhaustive keyword research, write long-form and value-filled content, optimize for both on-page and off-page SEO, etc.

  1. What is LAMP stack?

LAMP refers to Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP/Perl/Python. They are together a demonstrated set of software for delivering excellent web applications.

It is a renowned open-source stack. Each component of the solution stack denotes a crucial layer of the stack.

It is one of the ancient and most deployed software development methods.

With LAMP stack, one can develop dynamic web sites and web applications.

  1. What is MERN stack?

MERN refers to MongoDB, Express.JS, React, and NodeJS. The four technologies are open-source.

One can develop dynamic websites and web applications with this software stack.

JavaScript is the common language for all the four technologies of MERN stack.

  1. What is MEAN stack?

Being an open-source web stack, MEAN stands for MongoDB, Express.JS, AngularJS, and Node.js.

The client side and server side are essentially dependent on JavaScript.

One can develop quick, robust and dynamic websites and web applications with MEAN stack.

  1. What are some disadvantages of GraphQL?

The query turning out to be very complex is one of the disadvantages of GraphQL. Besides, GraphQL forever returns HTTP 200. The file upload attribute is also not included in the requirement of GraphQL.

  1. What is Git?

Being an open-source distributed version control system, Git lets you to store code, follow up revision history, and go back to previous code version whenever needed.

  1. Explain semantic HTML

Semantic HTML adds meaning to the web page. It is also called as semantic markup. You don’t just define the look of the webpage with semantic HTML.

  1. What is meant by boostrap in Full Stack Development?

Bootstrap is a web app development toolkit. You needn’t develop lots of CSS code when Bootstrap is available. You needn’t spend lot of time coding your own grid, and it has responsive images.

  1. What is the difference between REST and SOAP?

SOAP depends a lot on XML to offer messaging services. But REST depends on a simple URL rather than utilizing XML to make a request.

  1. What is an application architecture?

An application architecture elucidates on the patterns applied for framing and building an application.

A well-defined application architecture will give you the benefit of apps scaling as the business demands.

  1. Explain the difference between null and undefined in JavaScript.

Null and undefined are two special types of values. While undefined implies a variable has been declared but not still been assigned a value, null can be assigned to a variable as a portrayal of no value. It must be noted that JavaScript does not set a value to null.

  1. Explain Node.js.

Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform JavaScript runtime environment which lets developing JavaScript programs for the server side.

It runs on V8 engine which is backed by Google Chrome. One can develop various types of applications with Node.js including command line application, web application etc.

  1. Explain Express. Js

Express.js is one of the renowned Node.js web frameworks. It is the core library for several other popular Node.js web frameworks.

  1. List some full-stack developer tools.

Backbone, Visual Studio Code, TypeScript, GitHub etc. are some of the Full Stack Developer tools.

  1. Explain dependency injection.

Dependency injection is a method wherein classes and functions don’t develop their dependencies. Rather they obtain from some other place.

Dependency injection is generally carried out in an automated manner along with dependency injection containers.

  1. What is the difference between GET and POST?

With regard to GET method, only restricted amount of data can be transferred owing to data being sent in header.

With regard to POST method, huge sums of data can be transferred since data is sent in body.

In GET method, the values are viewed in the URL, while in POST method, the values are not viewed in the URL.

  1. What is the difference between interface and abstract?

In an abstract class, we can build both abstract methods and concrete methods. Interface has characteristics similar to abstract, but all methods are abstract in an interface by default.

  1. Explain the difference between normalization and denormalization.

Normalization and denormalization are two popular methods in databases. One can enhance the performance of relational databases through these two terms.

While in normalization, the data is segregated into multiple tables to decrease data redundancy, denormalization is the reverse process.

Denormalization blends the data into a single table to lead to quicker data retrieval.

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