Software Testing is the crucial and integral activity in the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC) to verify that the developed application is working according to the given client requirements accurately. It is important to ensure the quality of the software by checking them with all kinds of inputs, and if any errors or bugs occurred, they should be fixed immediately. Software Developers are the most in-demand people in companies to produce high-quality applications for their clients. In this article, some of the frequently asked Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers are presented to give you hope and confidence to clear the technical rounds of big IT companies.
- What are the testing methodologies in software development?
Software testing plays an important role in the software development lifecycle and it will be done in various methodologies. Following are the two major methodologies used in software development.
Waterfall: This is the traditional software development model that gathers requirements first, then specification document will be prepared, then design and development will happen, finally the testers will perform testing, and software system will be delivered.
Agile: This is the latest and trending software development model that works in small iterations. The testers will test the software parallelly as it is getting developed. When the developers build a small function as per the client requirements, the testers will start the test along with gathering the client’s feedback as it drives faster delivery with future development.
- What are the various types of testing?
Software testing will be done in many ways. Some of them are tested by the developers and some of them are tested by specialized software testing engineers. Following are the popularly used software testing types.
- Unit Testing: Testing the internal working of a unit of code.
- Integration Testing: Testing of the combination of multiple components
- Regression Testing: Testing the new codes either affects the existing features or functions.
- System Testing: Complete end-to-end testing with the assurance of the whole system is working as per the expectation.
- Smoke Testing: Quick test to ensure that the software is working from the most basic level and assure that there will not be any crash when it is started.
- Performance Testing: Testing either the software performs according to the complete user’s expectation through checking the response time and throughput under particular load and environment.
- User-Acceptance Testing: Testing that the software meets the client’s requirements and this is the final step before the software is delivered to the client.
- Stress Testing: Testing for the assurance of performance that doesn’t degrade when the load is increasing.
- Usability Testing: Measuring how usable the software is by collecting the feedback of end-users to increase usability if required.
- Security Testing: Testing the software security checks that the data of the software can be confidential. This is important for all web-based applications that involve transactions.
- Define bug report
The testers record their observation and findings during the testing process that are useful for the developers or the management and make them in a report is known as a bug report. A detailed bug report is important to deliver a quality product. It will help the people with
- Understanding of the problem
- Steps to reproduce the problem
- Preparing to the environment and the specific conditions under which it happens
- The resolution when the developers fix the problem
The bug report should contain the following important information
- Title: Short headline to summarize the problem and the headline should be accurate and specific.
- Description: Detailed summary of the problem along with its priority, impact, severity, steps to reproduce, and expected and actual report.
- Version: Exact product version or build number of the bug that helps the developer reproduce the bug easily.
- Status: The bug status can be either ‘Active’, ‘Ready for testing’, or ‘Closed’. Active denotes the bug is found, ready for testing denotes that the bug is fixed by the developer, and closed denotes that the tester mark is closed after the developer fixes it.
- Steps to reproduce: Steps that are taken for successful reproducing the bugs.
- Assigned to: Name and ID of the developer or tester to whom the bug is assigned
- Resolution: The developer should include the cause for the bug and its resolution for avoiding similar bug surfaces in the future.
- Explain important testing metrics
Testing metrics offer a high-level overview to the management or the developers about the flow of the project along with the next action steps. Following are the metrics derived from the record of the tests.
- Total amount of defects found as per the severity
- Total amount of bugs that were fixed
- Total amount of bugs caused by an error in the source code vs configuration or external platform factors
- Bug find and fix rate over time
- Bugs by feature or produce area
- Average time is taken for finding and fixing the bugs
- Total time is taken for new feature development vs time spent for resolving bugs and errors
- Number of outstanding bugs before a release
- Failures or bugs reported by end-users by the customers vs the bugs found by the testers.
- Explain the test-driven development
TDD (Test-Driven-Development) is a software development technique introduced by Kent Beck in his book that was released in 1999. In test-driven development, a developer will work on a feature first to write a failing test, then write enough code for making the test pass. Once they have a passing test, they include the next failing test to write code for passing the failing test. This will be repeated until the developer has completely worked on the feature. If the code under the test has external dependencies like database, network, or files, they can mock them to isolate the code.
- What are the advantages of TDD?
The test-driven development has the following benefits for the software development lifecycle.
- Writing tests first encourages us to think of the feature we are going to build and helps us to produce better code.
- When we have a working set of tests, a failing test indicates that the bug is with the code that we added recently and it helps us reduce the time spent fixing the bug
- Writing tests help the developer to clarify the needs and specifications as it is challenging to write a good test for a poor set of requirements.
- Testing the software after every change helps to produce high-quality software and we can be sure that the new code didn’t break the software flow.
- TDD provides us the confidence to include new codes as we have already tested the place.
- Define cross-browser testing
Cross-browser testing is the testing that performs on the web applications to check the application is supported by all the browsers and tries to test the same functionality on all of them. If they observe any unexpected behavior in a browser that the application doesn’t work as expected or looks different. They have to note the behavior of all the browser names and versions in the test report. It helps the programmer to fix the behavior of all the browsers where it doesn’t work as planned.
- What is the difference between quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA)?
Quality Assurance is to ensure that the software or application is thoroughly tested before releasing it to the end-users. QA activities are performed while the product is being developed by focusing on the improvement of the software development process. Sometimes, the tester and QA will be the same person with different responsibilities according to the organization size. The main goal of the QA is to ensure the quality of shipped software.
Quality Control is to ensure that the developed software or application meets the required standard or not. QC is the process of software engineering that assures the software product quality by testing and reviewing its functional and non-functional requirements. The activities of QC are performed after the software is developed as it verifies the quality of the final product and result.
- List some of the common mistakes that lead to major issues in software development
- Poor Scheduling
- Ignoring small errors
- Not following the exact process flow
- Improper resource allocation
- What are the various types of severity that we can assign to a bug?
The severity of the bugs will depend on the size and structure of the software development, but a bug can be assigned in the following types of severities.
- User Interface Bugs
- Accessibility Bugs
- Leaky Abstractions
- Software Hangs
- Unable to perform a specific action by an end-user
- Boundary Constraints
- Crashing under high load
- Business Logic and/or calculation errors
- Any user action that causes the software to crash
- Exposing sensitive or confidential user data
- Security Issues
- Data Loss
Software testing is a crucial part of the software development lifecycle to ensure the quality and confidence to deliver the software to clients. We have covered here the important software testing interview questions and answers to ace the interviews of technical rounds to become software testing engineers in top companies. It is better to learn software testing with hands-on experiences, and we provide the best Software Testing Training in Chennai on both manual and automation testing methodologies along with the tools like Selenium, LoadRunner, and Appium. Enroll in our Software Testing Training Institute in Chennai to gain field expertise and industry-worth certification.