Easy way to IT Job

Swift Tutorial
Share on your Social Media

Swift Tutorial

Published On: July 13, 2022

Swift Tutorial – Fundamentals for iOS Development

Do you want to learn basic concepts of Swift programming language? Here is a comprehensive guide to getting started with Swift and we cover the following topics in this Swift Tutorial.

  • What is Swift?
  • Installing Swift
  • Syntax of Swift
  • Variables, Data Types, & Type Casting
  • Operators in Swift
  • Conditional Statements
  • Iterative Loops
  • Arrays and Tuples
  • Sets and Dictionaries
  • Functions of Swift
  • Closures and Structures
  • Protocols and Extensions
  • Generics and Enumerations

What is Swift?

Swift is a popular programming language used in iOS and OS X development. It is completely based on C and Objective C and it is developed by Apple Inc.

Installing Swift

Before installing Swift programming language, check out the following prerequisites in your system

  • Memory: 1 GB
  • Graphics Card: NVIDIA GeForce 510
  • File Size: 700 MB
  • OS: Windows XP or above
  • Software: XCode IDE

For downloading XCode, go to the Apple Developer Website and then to Download for Apple Developers. Now, select the latest version of XCode and download it. Once you have downloaded the dmg file, then you can start installing by double-clicking on it.

When the installation is done, double-click on it to open and go to File -> New -> Playground. Now, choose iOS and mention the name of the playground. Click on create.

For Downloading Xcode

Now we have created a playground in XCode IDE. As the playground is ready, we can start with coding.

Syntax of Swift

Following is a list of the popular syntax of Swift programming language. It is important to have a fundamental understanding of them for writing code properly.

Tokens: It refers to a keyword, a constant, a string, a symbol, or an identifier as per the place it is used.

Semicolons: Generally, semicolons will not be used in every statement of the code in Swift. It is used as a delimiter when using multiple statements in the same line.

Keywords: They are reserved words in the swift coding language.

Literals: It is mainly used for source code representation of a value of an integer, string type, or a floating-point number.

Comments: They define texts that are to be ignored by the compiler and they will be used within /* and */ for multiple lines of comments and // for single-line comments.

Identifier: As swift is a case-sensitive programming language, it doesn’t allow special characters like @, #, $, %, and so on within identifiers. The identifier must contain A to Z or a to z or underscore or digits.

White Spaces: In Swift, Whitespace is used to denote tabs, blanks, newline characters, statements, or comments. It helps the compiler identify the status of statements.

Sample Hello World Program with Swift

/*Hello World Program */

import UIKit // Since we are creating the program for the iOS

playground, we have to import UiKit

var myString =”Hello World!”;print (myString)// Semicolon used since 2 statements are used together


Hello World!

Variable, Data Types, and Type Casting in Swift

Variables in Swift

The variables are reserved memory locations for storing given values. In simple terms, whenever you create a variable, it means you are reserving memory for upcoming values.

Sample Variable Declaration

var a = 42 //Declaring variable

var a: Int = 42 // You can also declare variable by specifying the data type.

let b = 32 // Declaring a constant


Data Types in Swift

Swift provides various built-in data types as follows

Data Types in Swift
Data Type Bit Width Range
Int8 1 byte -127 to 127
UInt8 1 byte 0 to 255
Int32 4 bytes -2147483648 to 2147483647
UInt32 4 bytes 0 to 4294967295
Int64 8 bytes -9223372036854775808 to 922337203685477580
UInt64 8 bytes 0 to 18446744073709551615
Float 4 bytes 1.2E-38 to 3.4E+38 (˜6 digits)
Double 8 bytes 2.3E-308 to 1.7E+308(˜15 digits)

In Swift, it is not necessary to define the data type when declaring a variable as it automatically understands the type according to the value.

Type Casting

In swift, you can perform type casting or type conversion as follows

Here is the example of converting the integer value to a float value using type casting

let a: Int = 5679 // Declare 2 constants

let b: Float = 2.9999

//Converting Float to Int

print(“This number is an Int now (Int(b))”)

//Converting Int to Float

print(“This number is a Float now (Float(a))”)


This number is an Int now 2

This number is a Float now 5679.0

Operators in Swift

Operators are used to manipulating the value of the operands. For example, for the addition operation, + is the operator. Following are the operators that are supported by Swift Programming.

Operators in Swift
Type Operator
Arithmetic Operators +, -, *, /, %
Comparison Operators ==, !=, >, <, >=, <=
Logical Operators &&, ||, !
Bitwise Operators &, |, ^, ~, <<, >>
Assignment Operators =, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=, <<=, >>=, &=, ^=, !=
Range Operators Closed Range, Half-Open Range, One-Sided Range
Miscellaneous Operators Unary Minus, Unary Plus, Ternary Conditional

Check out the following examples to understand the operators better.

print(” 5 + 3 = (5 + 3 ) “) // Addition

print(” 5 – 3 = (5 – 3 ) “) // Subtraction

print(” 5 * 3 = (5 * 3 ) “) // Multiplication

print(” 5 / 3 = (5 / 3 ) “) // Division

print(” 5 % 3 = (5 % 3 ) “) // Modulus


5 + 3 = 8

5 – 3 = 2

5 * 3 = 15

5 / 3 = 1

5 % 3 = 2.3

Conditional Statements in Swift

Conditional Statements are the important thing in Swift programming as they are used to execute a group of statements as per the given condition like true or false. There are three different conditional statements such as If, If-Else, and Switch statement.

If Statement

It is used for decision-making purposes to decide whether a particular statement or a group of statements will be executed or not.

Conditional Statements In Swift

Example for if statement in Swift

var x:Int = 10

if x < 20 {

print(“x is less than 20”) }

print(“Value of variable x is (x)”)


x is less than 20

Value of variable x is 10

Nested-If in Swift

The if statement within another if statement is known as nested if.

Nested-If In Swift

Example for Nested If in Swift

var x:Int = 100

var y:Int = 200

if x == 100 {

print(“First condition is satisfied”)

if y== 200 {

print(“Second condition is also satisfied”) }


print(“Value of variable x is (x)”)

print(“Value of variable y is (y)”)


First condition is satisfied

Second condition is satisfies

Value of variable x is 100

Value of variable y is 200

If-Else Statement

Here, it tests the condition and if the condition is true, the statements in the ‘if’ block will be executed, or the statements in the ‘else’ block will be executed.

If-Else Statement

Example for If-Else in Swift

var x:Int = 10

if x < 20 {

print(“x is less than 20”) }

else {

print(“x is not less than 20”)}

print(“Value of variable x is (x)”)


x is less than 20

If-Else Ladder

It allows the developer to use more than one if-else statement within a loop. If the conditional holds true, the rest of the loops will be bypassed.

If-Else Ladder

Example for If-Else Ladder in Swift

var x: Int = 100

var y:Int = 200

if x < y {

/* If condition is true then print the following */

print(“x is less than y”) }

else if x > y {

/* If condition is true then print the following */

print(“x is greater than y”) }

else {

/* If condition is false then print the following */

print(“x is equal to y”) }

print(“Value of variable x and y are:(x) and (y)”)


x is less than y

Value of variable x and y are: 100 and 200

Switch Statement in Swift

The switch statement is the easy way for executing conditions that have multiple parts.

Switch Statement In Swift

Example for Switch Statement in Swift

var a = 20

switch index {

case 10 :

print( “Value of index is 10”)


case 15,20 :

print( “Value of index is either 15 or 20”)


case 30 :

print( “Value of index is 30”)

default :

print( “default case”) }


Value of index is either 15 or 20

Value of index is 30

Iterative Loops in Swift

The loop statements also known as iterative loops are used to execute a group of statements multiple times. Popular loop statements are for-in loop, while loop, and do-while loop in Swift.

For-In Loop in Swift

It is used to iterate the group of statements until the given condition becomes false.

For-In Loop In Swift

Example for For-In Loop in Swift

for i in 1 … 3


print (“Hello World! And Value of i is (i)”) }


Hello World! And Value of i is 1

Hello World! And Value of i is 2

Hello World! And Value of i is 3

While Loop

Here, the statements within the while block will be repeatedly executed until the given condition becomes true.

While Loop

Example for While Loop in Swift

var current: Int = 0 //Initialize variables

var final: Int = 3

let Completed = true

while (current <= final) // condition

{ //play game if Completed


print(“You have passed the level (current)”)

current = current + 1 //statement to be executed if the condition is satisfied



print(“The while loop ends”) //Statement executed after the loop ends


You have passed the level 0

You have passed the level 1

You have passed the level 2

You have passed the level 3

The while loop ends

Do-While Loop

When the while loop is used to check the condition at the top of the loop, the do-while loop checks the condition at the bottom of the loop.

Do-While Loop

Example for Do-While Loop in Swift

var val = 5 repeat

{ print(“Value is (val)”)

val = val + 1 }

while index < 10.


Value is 5

Value is 6

Value is 7

Value is 8

Value is 9

Arrays in Swift

Arrays are a data structure that consists of a list of elements that are in similar data types. An example for an array is as follows

var color: Array <String> = [“Green”, “Red”, “Blue”, “Purple”]

the append method is used to add more elements to an array. For example,


print (color)


Green Red Blue Purple Yellow

Tuples in Swift

Tuples are used for grouping the multiple values in a single value. For example,

var failure404 = (404, “Gateway not found”)

print(“The code is(failure404.0)”)

print(“The definition of error is(failure404.1)”)

var failure404 = (failureCode: 404, description: “Gateway not found”)

print(failure404.faliureCode) // prints 404.


The code is 404

The definition of error is Gateway not found 404

Sets in Swift

Sets are used to store values of the same types without any proper ordering as for arrays. They are created by placing all the elements inside the curly braces [] and a comma to separate the elements.

let evenNumber: Set = [4,6,2,8,10]

We can perform set operations like Union, Intersection, and Subtraction in Swift

Union: Union of A and B denotes the elements of both sides and it can be performed using the .union() method.

Intersection: Intersection of A and B denotes the common elements from both sides. It is performed using the .intersection() method.

Subtraction: The elements that are differ from A and B sets will be performed using A – B.

Example for sets in swift

let evenNumber: Set = [10,12,14,16,18,20]

let oddNumber: Set = [5,7,9,11,13,15]

let primeNumber: Set = [2,3,5,7,13,17,19]







[9, 11, 15]

Dictionaries in Swift

Dictionaries are used in swift to store unordered list of values that are in similar data types. Example for dictionaries in Swift

var exampleDict:[Int:String] = [1:”One”, 2:”Two”, 3:”Three”] //Creating Dictionaries

var accessval = exampleDict[1] //Accessing Dictionary Values

print( “Value of key = 1 is (accessVal” )

print( “Value of key = 2 is (exampleDict[2])” )

print( “Value of key = 3 is (exampleDict[3])” )


Value of key = 1 is Optional(“One”)

Value of key = 2 is Optional(“Two”)

Value of key = 3 is Optional(“Three”)

Functions in Swift

Functions are a set of statements coded together for performing a particular task again and again. It can be called with or without parameters, with or without return values, or function types. It can be used as nested functions. Example for functions in swift is as follows

func Employee(empname: String) -> String {

//Defining a function

return empname }

print(Employee(empname: “Jack”)) //Calling a function

print(Employee(empname: “Jill”))




Closures in Swift

Closures are self-contained codes that can be anonymous, unlike functions. An example of closure is as follows

let name = { print (“Example for Closures in Swift”)}



Example for Closures in Swift

Structures in Swift

Structures are used to define construct methods and properties as swift offers a flexible solution for using coding blocks to be used as constructs.

Example for Structures in Swift

struct employeeDetails { //Defining a Structure

var name = “Jack”

var id=121

varphonenumber= 9958746521


let details = employeeDetails() //Accessing the structure and properties

print(“Name of employee is (details.name)”)

print(“Id of employee is (details.id)”)

print(“Phone number of employee is (details.phonenumber)”)


Name of employee is Jack

Id of employee is 121

Phone number of employee is 9958746521

Classes in Swift

Classes are the building blocks of flexible constructs. Users can also define classes with properties and methods to be used repeatedly.

Example for classes in swift

class DetailsStruct { //Defining a class

var id:Int

init(id:Int) {

self.id= id }


class studentDetails {

var id=4577845


let studentid = studentDetails()

print(“Student id is (studentid.id)”)


Student id is 4577845

Inheritance in Swift

Inheritance is the process of creating new classes using the properties and methods of existing classes. In simple terms, the derived class can get the capabilities of the base class along with its functions.

Here, the classes are divided into two categories like superclass and subclass

Superclass: A class that contains methods, properties, and functions to be used in other classes is known as a superclass.

Subclass: A class that inherits the properties, methods, and functions from the superclass in known as subclass. Example for Inheritance is below

class EmployeeDetails{

var id:Int;

var number:Int;

init(detail1:Int, detail2:Int) {

id = detail1;

number = detail2;


func print() {

print(“Employee id is :(id), Employee phone number is :(number)”)



class display : EmployeeDetails {

init() {

super.init(detail1:8754, detail2: 9875646531) //super keyword is used to call the parameters & methods from super class



let employeeinformation = display()



Employee id is 8754, Employee phone number is 9875646531

Protocols in Swift

Interfaces in other programming languages are referred as protocols in Swift. Example for protocols in Swift is as follows

protocol Fly {

var flies: Bool { get set }

func flyable(milesCovered: Double) -> String


class Vehicle : Fly{

var flies: Bool = false

var name: String = “Default name”

func flyable(milesCovered: Double) -> String {


return “(self.name) flies (milesCovered) miles”


else {

return “(self.name) cannot fly”




var BMWX1 = Vehicle()

BMWX1.name = “BMW X1”

BMWX1.flies = false



BMW X1 cannot fly

Extensions in Swift

Extensions are used in swift to add the functionalities of an existing class, structure, or enumeration and we can add computed properties, computed type properties, define new nested types, define instance and type methods, provide new initializers, define subscripts, and make an existing type conform to protocols.

Example for extensions in Swift

extension Int{

var add:Int{returnself+10}

varsubtract:Int{returnself- 34}

var multiply:Int{returnself* 5}

var divide:Int{returnself/5}


let addition = 3.add

print(“The value after adding is (add)”)

let subtraction = 120.subtract

print(“The value after subtracting is (subtraction)”)

let multiplication = 25.multiply

print(“The value is mutiplying is (multiplication)”)

let division = 55.divide

print(“The value after division is (division)”)

let mix = 10.add+34.subtract

print(“Value calculated is (mix)”)


The value after adding is 13

The value after subtracting is 86

The value is multiplying is 125

The value after division is 11

Value calculated is 20

Generics in Swift

Generics are used to write flexible and reusable functions and types in Swift. They are used to avoid duplications in Swift codes.

Example for generics in Swift

func swap<T>(x: inout T, y: inout T){

let temp = x

x = y

y= temp


var str1 =”Hello”

var str2 =”Edureka”

print(“Before Swapping String values are: (str1) and (str2)”)

swap(x:&str1, y:&str2)

print(“After Swapping String values are: (str1) and (str2)”)

var num1 = 1996

var num2 = 1865

print(“Before Swapping Int values are: (num1) and (num2)”)

swap(x:&num1, y:&num2)

print(“After Swapping Int values are: (num1) and (num2)”)


Before Swapping String values are: Hello and Edureka

After Swapping String values are: Edureka and Hello

Before Swapping String values are: 1996 and 1865

After Swapping String values are: 1865 and 1996

Enumerations in Swift

Enumeration is a user-defined data type that contains a set of related values using the keyword enum. An example of enumeration in Swift is as follows

enum Color: Int {

case blue

case green

case red

case yellow

init() {

self = .red


func getDetails() -> String {


case .blue: return “Color is blue”

case .purple: return “Color is purple”

case .red: return “Color is red”

case .yellow: return “Color is yellow”

default: return “Color not found” }



var chooseColor = Color


var favColor = Color.purple


if(favColor == Color.purple)


print(“Favourite color is Purple”)






Favorite Color is Purple



We hope you have got a fundamental idea of Swift Programming Language through this blog. Gain hands-on exposure by implementing them in the real-time project by enrolling in our iOS Training in Chennai at Softlogic System.

Share on your Social Media

Just a minute!

If you have any questions that you did not find answers for, our counsellors are here to answer them. You can get all your queries answered before deciding to join SLA and move your career forward.

We are excited to get started with you

Give us your information and we will arange for a free call (at your convenience) with one of our counsellors. You can get all your queries answered before deciding to join SLA and move your career forward.