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Overview of Database for Beginners
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Overview of Database for Beginners

Published On: November 24, 2022

Overview of Database for Beginners

Since its conception and creation in 1960, databases have advanced significantly. Self-driving databases and cloud databases have started making strides in the industry more recently as a response to the development of the Internet and the demand for speed and large amounts of storage.

What, though, is a database? Explore now! Enjoy unlimited practicing hours at Softlogic Systems by enrolling in our DBMS Courses in Chennai with IBM Certification.

What is Data?

Data is nothing more than information that has been gathered in a variety of formats, including text, numbers, media, and others. Data can be transformed into a binary digital form for use in computing, allowing it to be transferred around and processed effectively.

Data can be referred to in either the singular or plural. We occasionally come across the phrase “raw data.” It is merely data in its simplest digital form. Early on, as the value of data began to grow, phrases like “electronic data processing” or simply “data processing” became extensively used in the IT sector.

What is Database?

A database is a methodical or well-organized grouping of associated data that is kept in a way that makes it simple to access, retrieve, manage, and change. It is the location of all data storage, similar to a library that holds a broad selection of books from many genres. Consider data to be books.

In a database, you can set up a table with rows and columns of data. By indexing the material, it is simple to locate and retrieve it once more as needed. Databases are used to administer a large number of websites on the Internet. Database handlers are used to establish databases so that users may access the data through a single set of software applications.

Different databases include MySQL, SQL Server, MongoDB, Oracle Database, PostgreSQL, Informix, Sybase, and more. DBMS is used to manage these contemporary databases. To manipulate the data in a database, Structured Query Language, or SQL as it is more often known, is employed.

Evolution of Database

About 50 years ago, a file-based system was the foundation of the database. It has undergone several generations of evolution in due course.

  • In 1968, flat-file-based databases were first used in databases.
  • The Hierarchical Database was created after that and existed until 1980. This served as the foundation for IBM’s first database, IMS (Information Management System).
  • The first Network data model was created by Charles Bachman and was known as the Integrated Data Store (IDS). The early 1960s saw its introduction, and in 1971 it became standardized.
  • The Relational Database was first introduced in 1970.
  • The era of Relational Databases and Database Management is currently in effect.

Components of Database

Hardware: It consists of actual, tangible electronic devices, including storage and I/O units. It can provide a link between digital devices and physical systems.

Software: Applications for overseeing and maintaining the entire database. DBMS is a type of software. Examples include the operating system (OS), database application programs that enable data access in DBMS, network software that distributes data, etc.

Data: Data is the information that a DBMS collects, stores, accesses, and processes, including operational data, metadata, and real data.

Procedure: A specific set of guidelines and rules for using a database in the design and operation of a database management system (DBMS), as well as for teaching users how to use and administer it.

Database Access Language: This facilitates data export and database access of the same. You can create instructions in the database access language to add new data, edit existing data, or retrieve data from the database. The results are then presented to the user by the DBMS.

Applications of Database

We shall employ a database in a wide range of fields.

Here are some examples of applications that make use of databases:

Railway Reservation System: The database for the railway reservation system plays a crucial role in keeping track of ticket purchases, train departure and arrival information, and providing users with information about late trains.

Library Management: With the help of the database, it is now simple for libraries to keep track of each book and maintain it. The library has a huge collection of books, which is why this occurs. Keeping track of all books in a copy or registration is exceedingly challenging. Currently, a database is utilized to record all the data about to book release dates, titles, authors, and availability.

Banking Sector: One of the key applications of databases is in the banking industry. Every day, we conduct what we all know will be a thousand transactions through banks, but we do so online. The database that oversees all bank transactions is the only thing that makes this all feasible.

Educational Sector: Exams are currently taken online. Therefore, universities and colleges maintain DBMS to store information about student registrations, outcomes, courses, and grades. Take telecoms as an example. There would be no telecom company without database. These businesses find that database is particularly helpful for storing phone information and monthly postpaid bills.

Credit card transactions:  Only the database is capable of enabling credit card transactions and product purchases. The credit card holder needs to understand how important it is for their data to be protected by database.

Social media sites:  We can access social media platforms by entering the necessary information. On social media platforms like Facebook, Pinterest, and Instagram, many users sign up every day. With the use of a database, all user-related data is stored and kept up to date.

Finance: Database systems can be used for a variety of financial tasks today, including managing financial statements, holding information, and storing sales data

Military: The databaseis essential in military settings. The military maintains numerous files that need to be kept safe and secure, including records of personnel. Military data is highly secure with a Database.

Online Shopping: These days, all of us conduct our shopping online to save time. The database facilitates this process. Only with ahelp of database, such as Purchase information, invoice bills, and payment, are the products added and sold.

Human Resource Management: Using a database, the management keeps track of each employee’s pay, taxes, and work.

Manufacturing: Every day, businesses that are engaged in manufacturing products and selling goods. A database is used to maintain records of all those specifics.

Airline Reservation: Similar to the railway reservation system, the airline reservation system requires a database to keep track of the arrival, departure, and status of any flight delays.

Types of Databases

Relational Database: The most effective way to access structured data is through a relational database. The information is arranged into several tables with columns and rows.

Object-oriented Database: Data is represented as objects in an object-oriented database, just like in object-oriented programming.

Distributed Database: It contains two or more files spread over several locations. The database may be dispersed across many networks or located on various machines at the same physical location.

NoSQL Database: Non-relational NoSQL databases are used to store unstructured and semi-structured data. As web apps spread and grew in complexity, they gained appeal.

Graph Database: A graph database holds information in the form of entities and the connections among them.

Cloud Database: Access to this database is offered “as a service” and it is run on a cloud computing platform.

Centralization Database: A mainframe computer, desktop computer, or server CPU, for instance, may house, store, and maintain CDB.

Operational Database: It is also referred to as OLTP or online transactional processing databases, which are created or updated to hold transactions carried out by numerous users in real-time.

Data Warehouses: It serves as a central data repository. It keeps both recent and old data in one place for analytical reporting throughout the entire company.

Architecture of Database

In corporations and organizations, database architecture entails using computer languages to create software. It mostly entails the development, design, implementation, and maintenance of the computer programs used by organizations to store and manage their data.

A DBMS’s design is determined by its architecture. The architecture can be either single-tier or multi-tier, including 1-tier, 2-tier, 3-tier, and n-tier architectures, among others.

1-tier Architecture

The simplest database architecture, known as a “1 Tier Architecture,” puts the client, server, and database on the same system. Any time you install a database on your system and access it to practice SQL queries is an example of a straightforward one-tier architecture. However, production uses of this architecture are uncommon.

2-tier Architecture

The presentation layer of a two-tier database management system (DBMS) runs on a client (PC, mobile device, tablet, etc.), while the second tier, or data storage, is located on a server. The DBMS is more secure thanks to two-tier architecture because the end user is not directly exposed to it. Additionally, it enables more rapid and direct communication.

3-tier Architecture

The most common client-server architecture in DBMS is a three-tier architecture, in which functional operations, logic, data access, data storage, and user interface are all separately developed and maintained as separate modules. A presentation layer, an application layer, and a database server are all parts of a three-tier design.

3-three database: The 2-tier client-server architecture is extended by architectural design. The components of a three-tier architecture are as follows:

  • Presentation Layer (PC, Tablet, Mobile, etc.)
  • Application Layer (server)
  • Database Server

N-tier Architecture

The most common way to construct N-tier architectures is as infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) applications, with each tier running on a different set of virtual machines (VMs). An N-tier application need not, however, be an IaaS-only application.

For several aspects of the architecture, including caching, messaging, and data storage, it’s frequently preferable to use managed services.

Think about using an N-tier design for

  • Straightforward web applications
  • Transferring an on-premises application with little change to azure.
  • Unified creation of cloud and on-premises applications.

Advantages of Database

A structured and thorough method of documenting the outcomes of the company’s efforts.

  • A data receiver for use in satisfying the users’ information needs.
  • Less redundant data.
  • Improved consistency and fewer update issues.
  • Increased data independence from application programs and integrity.
  • Better user access to data thanks to host and query languages.
  • Enhanced data protection.
  • Lower expenses for data entry, storage, and retrieval.
  • Supported the creation of new application programs.
  • Standards can be enforced: standardized stored data formats are especially preferred for old data exchange or system migration (change).
  • Requirements that conflict can be managed.

Drawbacks of Database

It raises the chance that individuals or organizations outside the corporation will have access to information about how the company is run.

  • It raises the likelihood that someone inside the company who has received full training may purposefully misuse the data resources.
  • The cost of the data strategy is expensive since it requires more hardware and software.
  • The design of database systems is challenging, time-consuming, and complex (because of data independence).
  • Not all organizations keep it. Only exceptionally large enterprises can use it effectively.
  • High conversion expenses when switching from a file-based system to one that uses databases.
  • Every user and programmer must undergo initial training.

Database Languages

Users can query databases and make updates using the proper language provided by a DBMS. The database is effectively created and maintained by it. Database languages consists of SQL, Oracle, dBase, MS Access, FoxPro, and others.

Data Definition Language (DDL), Data Control Language (DCL), Data Manipulation Language (DML), and Transaction Control Language are the four main categories of database languages (TCL).

  • Data Definition Language: Creates databases, files, tables, and data dictionaries within databases and aids in defining data and its relationships to other data types.
  • Data Control Language (DCL): Regulates database and data access
  • DML: Data Manipulation Language gives users the ability to insert, retrieve, update, and delete data from the database and supports fundamental data manipulation activities.
  • TCL (Transaction Control Language): It controls changes made by the DML statement to the database.

Database Management System

A form of software called a database management system, or DBMS helps in managing databases. Within a database, it is used to locate and store data. It can be changed to suit the demands of the user. It gives the database an additional layer of protection.

Examples of Database

Examples of databases include:

Microsoft SQL Server : It is a Relational Database Management System that was created by Microsoft. It is constructed using SQL, which is the accepted query language for DMSs.

Oracle Database : It is a multi-model DBMS that was created by the Oracle Corporation. It is frequently utilized when carrying out online transactions.

Relational Database Management System : The foundation of MySQL is Structured Query Language (SQL). Data warehousing, e-commerce platforms, etc. use it. It is regularly used as a web database management system.

IBM DB2 : It is a relational database management system. It is made to efficiently analyze, store, and retrieve data.

PostgreSQL : Relational database management system PostgreSQL is open-source and free to use. Data warehousing is frequently employed.

Advantages of DBMS

  • More data can be saved since the data is organized better.
  • A DBMS is a very secure platform that allows for the safe storage and access of sensitive and high-risk data.
  • Data handling is incredibly easy with DBMS.
  • A well-designed DBMS significantly reduces data inconsistency.
  • Access to data is quick.

Disadvantages of DBMS

  • The cost of maintaining the hardware and software needed for a DBMS varies.
  • The DBMS uses up more disk space as more data is loaded into it.
  • For someone without a technical background, using DBMS could seem very challenging.
  • All of the organization’s data is stored in a single DBMS, therefore if the software malfunctions, all of the data could be destroyed.


Professionals in organizations can use organized data to support better and more effective decision-making, agility, and scalability with the use of databases and other BI tools and computing tools.

Databases are moving in new ways thanks to the various types of databases, as well as changes in technology techniques, improvements in automation, and the cloud. Develop your database skills in our DBMS Training Institute in Chennai with 100% Placement Assistance at Softlogic Systems.

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